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Ups J Med Sci. 2000;105(3):227-34.

Clinicopathologic prognostic factors in patients with Borrmann type 4 gastric cancer: univariate and multivariate analyses.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Sendai National Hospital, Japan.



Advanced gastric cancer is classified into four Borrmann types, types 1 to 4. Type 4 is a relatively undifferentiated carcinoma with little or no gland-forming capability. Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and surgical management of gastric cancer, most tumors of Borrmann type 4 are not detected at an early stage and the prognosis remains poor; the five-year survival rate after gastric resection ranges from 10 to 20 percent. We evaluated the affects of several clinicopathologic variables on the 5-year survival rate after resection of Borrmann type 4 gastric cancer.


Data on clinical characteristics were obtained from the records of patients who underwent gastric resection between 1985 and 1995 at the Department of Surgery, Sendai National Hospital, and follow-up data were obtained from our tumor registry. Pathologic characteristics were determined from a detailed review of all available histopathologic slides. The relationship between clinicopathologic variables and 5-year survival rate was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and the logrank test. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis was then performed to determine which variables were independent prognostic factors.


Eighty-seven patients with Borrmann type 4 gastric cancer underwent a resection during the study period at our hospital. The overall 5-year survival rate was 14.8%. The relationship between clinicopathologic variables and 5-year survival rate was determined by constructing a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Tumor location (upper, middle and distal vs whole stomach, p=0.0214), lymph node metastasis, capillary microinvasion, and peritonitis carcinomatosa (absent vs present, p<0.05) significantly influenced survival. When multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazards regression of 5-year survival was performed, capillary microinvasion, peritonitis carcinomatosa (absent vs present) and tumor location (distal vs whole stomach) emerged as the statistically significant independent prognostic factors associated with long-term survival.


Capillary microinvasion and the presence or absence of peritonitis carcinomatosa are more powerful predictors of 5-year survival than is lymph node metastasis. Patients with gastric cancer of the whole stomach have a poorer prognosis than do those with carcinoma in the antrum of the stomach.

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