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Vaccine. 2001 Mar 21;19(17-19):2221-6.

Safety, efficacy and effectiveness of the influenza virus vaccine, trivalent, types A and B, live, cold-adapted (CAIV-T) in healthy children and healthy adults.

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Aviron, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA.


Influenza is a major cause of illness. We have assessed the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of CAIV-T vaccine. A two year, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy field trial in pre-school aged children was conducted; 1602 enrolled in Year One and 1358 (85%) returned in Year Two. In both study years combined, the overall vaccine efficacy against culture-confirmed influenza was 92% (95% CI: 88, 94). The vaccine efficacy was 95% (95% CI: 62, 99) against lower respiratory illness, 94% (95% CI: 90, 96) against febrile illness and 96% (95% CI: 88, 99) against otitis media associated with culture-confirmed influenza. A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, effectiveness field trial was conducted in 4561 working adults aged 18 to 64 years. Episodes and days of febrile illness (FI), severe febrile illness (SFI), febrile upper respiratory illness (FURI), work loss, and health care use were assessed. Vaccination significantly reduced the numbers of SFI, 18.8% reduction (95% CI: 7, 29), and FURI, 26.3% reduction (95% CI: 13, 33); and led to fewer days of illness (22.9% reduction for FI, 27.3% reduction for SFI), fewer days of work lost (17.9% reduction for SFI, 28.4% for FURI), and fewer days of health care provider visits (24.8% for SFI, 40.9% for FURI). Prescription antibiotics and over-the-counter medications were also reduced. The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. LAIV represents an additional important option for the control of influenza.

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