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Biochem J. 2001 Apr 1;355(Pt 1):29-38.

Alpha-melanocyte-related tripeptide, Lys-d-Pro-Val, ameliorates endotoxin-induced nuclear factor kappaB translocation and activation: evidence for involvement of an interleukin-1beta193-195 receptor antagonism in the alveolar epithelium.

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Oxygen Signalling Group, Centre for Research into Human Development, Tayside Institute of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, U.K.


The potential anti-inflammatory role of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-related tripeptide, lysine(11)-D-proline-valine(13) (KDPV), an analogue of interleukin (IL)-1beta(193-195) and an antagonist of IL-1beta/prostaglandin E(2), is not well characterized in the alveolar epithelium. In a model of foetal alveolar type II epithelial cells in vitro, we showed that lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) differentially, but selectively, induced the nuclear subunit composition of nuclear factor kappaB(1) (NF-kappaB(1)) (p50), RelA (p65) and c-Rel (p75), in parallel to up-regulating the DNA-binding activity (supershift indicating the presence of the p50-p65 complex). LPS accelerated the degradation of inhibitory kappaB-alpha (IkappaB-alpha), accompanied by enhancing its phosphorylation in the cytosolic compartment but not in the nucleus. KDPV suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, the nuclear localization of p50, p65 and p75, an effect that led to the subsequent inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) decreased the nuclear abundance of p50, p65 and p75, and subsequently depressed the DNA-binding activity induced by LPS. Analysis of the mechanism involved in the KDPV- and IL-1ra-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear localization revealed a reversal in IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and degradation, followed by cytosolic accumulation. LPS induced endogenous IL-1beta biosynthesis in a time-dependent manner; the administration of exogenous recombinant human interleukin 1 (rhIL-1) resulted in a dose-dependent activation of NF-kappaB. KDPV and IL-1ra abrogated the effect of rhIL-1. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, blocked the LPS-induced activation of NF-kappaB. These results indicate the involvement of prostanoid-dependent (NSAID-sensitive) and IL-1-dependent (IL-1ra-sensitive) mechanisms mediating LPS-induced NF-kappaB translocation and activation, a pathway that is regulated, in part, by a negative feedback mechanism transduced through IkappaB-alpha, the major cytosolic inhibitor of NF-kappaB.

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