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Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001 Feb;41(2):100-4.

In vivo histological changes occurring in hydroxyapatite cranial reconstruction--case report.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Yasuda Hospital, Takehara, Hiroshima.


Histological changes were observed in a hydroxyapatite plate and hydroxyapatite granules used to repair a craniotomy defect and removed after 2 years and 9 months of use. The hydroxyapatite plates and granules had completely fused to the cranium, with new bone formation on the dural side extending in a three-dimensional matrix along the pores with the Haversian system in the center. New bone formation was less extensive under the artificial dura than under normal dura. This finding suggests that the dura has the ability to promote bone formation. A new vessel was found along the interconnecting pores. The interconnecting pores allow osteoconduction in the hydroxyapatite plate, so new bone formation can progress. Hydroxyapatite has osteoconduction properties and is biocompatible, so gains strength in vivo through new bone formation, and is the ideal material for artificial bones. Factors important to achieving good bone formation after cranial reconstruction surgery include presence of the dura, and pore size approximate to the Haversian system (100-500 microns) and interconnecting pores in the hydroxyapatite plate.

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