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Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Mar;163(3 Pt 1):624-32.

The impact of insulin-dependent diabetes on ventilatory control in the mouse.

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Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) can lead to ventilatory depression and decreased sensitivity to hypercapnia. We examined relationships between ventilation, plasma insulin, leptin, ketones, and blood glucose levels in two mouse models of IDDM: (1) streptozotocin-induced diabetes in C57BL/6J mice on a regular diet or with induced obesity from a high fat diet; and (2) spontaneous diabetes mellitus in NOD-Ltj mice. In both mouse models, IDDM resulted in depression of the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). This ventilatory depression was not associated with decreases in plasma insulin or leptin levels. There was, however, a strong association between the duration of hyperglycemia, the decline in HCVR, and increased glycosylation of the diaphragm. Hyperventilation was observed in only six of 14 C57BL/6J obese wild-type mice, despite a significant degree of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in all 14 animals. In mice with DKA, there was a significant correlation between the increase in baseline minute ventilation (V E) and hyperleptinemia (r = 0.77, p < 0.01). In leptin-deficient C57BL/6J-Lep(ob) mice, low levels of both V E and ketones were observed. These results suggest that: (1) depression of the HCVR in IDDM is associated with hyperglycemia and glycosylation of the diaphragm; and (2) the hyperventilation of DKA is leptin dependent.

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