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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001 Apr 1;107(4):977-88.

Induction of bone formation by recombinant human osteogenic protein-1 and sintered porous hydroxyapatite in adult primates.

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Bone Research Unit, the Medical Research Council at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.


A critical issue in tissue engineering and morphogenesis of bone is the development of novel biomimetic biomaterials that are capable of optimizing the biological activity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic and osteogenic proteins, which are molecules that initiate bone formation in vivo. From a therapeutic perspective, a carrier matrix is required for the local delivery of these proteins to evoke a desired osteogenic effect. In view of the affinity of these proteins for hydroxyapatite, which may reflect the in vivo supramolecular assembly of bone proteins bound to both the extracellular matrix and the mineral component of bone, we investigated the efficacy of single applications of different doses of human osteogenic protein-1 (hOP-1) adsorbed onto sintered porous hydroxyapatites for bone induction in orthotopic calvarial defects in 12 adult male baboons (Papio ursinus) and heterotopically in the rectus abdominis of four additional baboons. In orthotopic specimens, pretreatment of sintered porous hydroxyapatites with 100 microgram of hOP-1 in 500 microliter of 5 mM hydrochloric acid resulted in rapid and diffuse osteoinduction restricted within the porous spaces of the hydroxyapatite, as evaluated by histology and histomorphometry on day 30. Hydroxyapatites treated with 500 microgram of hOP-1 showed a different pattern of bone formation and distribution on day 30 as compared with the lower dose of the recombinant morphogen. Although bone formation was extensive with the higher dose, it was found on the endocranial and pericranial aspects of the specimens, enveloping the implanted hydroxyapatite carrier, and the internal porous spaces were occupied by a rich vascular network without any bone formation. By 90 and 365 days after the implantation of both doses of hOP-1, however, there was remodelling and complete penetration of the newly induced bone within the available porous spaces. The combination of hOP-1 and hydroxyapatite also showed extensive bone formation in heterotopic specimens harvested from the rectus abdominis muscle of the baboon using doses of 5, 25, and 45 microgram of hOP-1 per implant. These findings in the adult primate demonstrate extensive bone formation by hOP-1 adsorbed onto sintered porous hydroxyapatites and suggest that predictable osteogenesis in clinical contexts for treatment of craniofacial bone defects may be engineered using inorganic, nonimmunogenic, and carvable delivery systems that initiate osteogenesis with relatively low doses of recombinant osteogenic proteins, thus mimicking the macrostructure and microstructure of living bone.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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