Send to

Choose Destination
Scand J Immunol. 2001 Mar;53(3):218-26.

Immunomodulation using bacterial enterotoxins.

Author information

Department of Biochemistry, Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ, UK.


Immunologic unresponsiveness (tolerance) is a key feature of the mucosal immune system, and deliberate vaccination by a mucosal route can effectively induce immune suppression. However, some bacterial-derived proteins, e.g. cholera toxin and the heat labile toxin of Escherichia coli, are immunogenic and immunomodulatory at mucosal surfaces and can effectively adjuvant immune responses to codelivered bystander antigens. This review summarizes some of the structural and biological characteristics of these toxins and provides examples of how these properties have been exploited for tolerance induction and mucosal vaccine development.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center