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Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001 Feb;39(2):105-16.

Antibacterial activity of 41 antimicrobials tested against over 2773 bacterial isolates from hospitalized patients with pneumonia: I--results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (North America, 1998).

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University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Erratum in

  • Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2001 Apr;39(4):275.


Pneumonia is the second most frequent cause of nosocomial infection, and hospitalization frequently is needed for community-acquired pneumonia. Knowledge of causative pathogens through periodic surveillance, and their prevailing antimicrobial susceptibility patterns becomes paramount in choosing appropriate empiric therapy. The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, tracks pathogen distribution worldwide since 1997 and documents emerging resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents. During the respiratory disease season in 1998, each of 30 medical centers (25 in the United States [US], and five in Canada [CAN]) contributed 100 consecutive isolates obtained from hospitalized patients with suspected pneumonia. The 2773 organisms, processed by the monitor consisted of a total of 35 species, with Staphylococcus aureus comprising 25.6% of all isolates and five other species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18.7%, Haemophilus influenzae 9.4%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 7.8%, Klebsiella spp. 7.0%, and Enterobacter spp. 6.7%) making up almost 50% of the total. In the US, pneumococci (8.5%) were more prevalent than in CAN (4.1%; p = 0.001). The US isolates of S. pneumoniae were variably susceptible to penicillin (76.8%), with non-susceptible strains demonstrating greater levels of cross resistance to macrolides (31.8%), cefepime (9.0%) and cefotaxime (6.8%), but remaining susceptible to gatifloxacin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. H. influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis were generally ampicillin-resistant, 40.4-44.4% and 93.7-95.7%, respectively. P. aeruginosa remained very susceptible to amikacin (91.3-93.8%) > tobramycin > meropenem > piperacillin/tazobactam > gentamicin > piperacillin > cefepime (80.0-81.8%). Extended spectrum beta-lactamase phenotypes among the Klebsiella spp. were isolated from five medical centers in the US and were 4.8-6.0% overall; a rate similar to the previous year. Among the US isolates of Enterobacter spp., only 77.6% and 79.6% were susceptible to ceftazidime and cefotaxime, respectively, but >90% were inhibited by cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Isolates from CAN were generally more susceptible, except for Pseudomonas isolates, where resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and imipenem was greater. The SENTRY Program results outline important national differences in the frequencies of pathogen occurrence, but more importantly, identify unstable patterns of resistance to available antimicrobial drugs, and serves as a reference for results of other local, national or international investigations.

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