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J Pediatr Orthop. 2001 Mar-Apr;21(2):264-7.

Normal development of the tibiofemoral angle in children: a clinical study of 590 normal subjects from 3 to 17 years of age.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.


In evaluation of genu varum-genu valgum, tibiofemoral (TF) angle and intercondylar (IC) or intermalleolar (IM) distance are commonly measured. In this study, we determined mean values and normal limits for TF angle and IC/IM distance in 590 normal Turkish children (287 girls and 303 boys) aged from 3 to 17 years using clinical methods. We noted a significantly higher degree of valgus angle than that in previous reports. The maximal mean valgus angle was 9.6 degrees at 7 years for boys and 9.8 degrees at 6 years for girls. These differences were considered racial differences between Turkish children and those of other races. Turkish children, aged between 3 and 17 years, exhibited < or =11 degrees physiologic valgus. A measurable varus angle or a valgus higher than 11 degrees during this period should be considered abnormal.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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