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Blood. 2001 Mar 15;97(6):1885-7.

Acquired factor X deficiency in patients with amyloid light-chain amyloidosis: incidence, bleeding manifestations, and response to high-dose chemotherapy.

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Section of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.


Acquired deficiency of factor X occurs in patients with systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, presumably due to adsorption of factor X to amyloid fibrils. Of 368 consecutive patients with systemic AL amyloidosis evaluated at Boston Medical Center, 32 patients (8.7%) had factor X levels below 50% of normal. Eighteen of these patients (56%) had bleeding complications, which were more frequent and severe in the 12 patients below 25% of normal; 2 episodes were fatal. Ten factor X-deficient patients received high-dose melphalan chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Of 7 patients alive 1 year after treatment, 4 had a complete hematologic response, and all 4 experienced improvement in their factor X levels. One of 2 additional patients with partial hematologic responses had improvement in factor X. Thus, aggressive treatment of the underlying plasma cell dyscrasia in AL amyloidosis can lead to the amelioration of amyloid-related factor X deficiency.

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