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J Biol Chem. 1975 Apr 10;250(7):2532-8.

Isolation and characterization of sulfhydryl oxidase from bovine milk.


A method is described for purification of sulfhydryl oxidase from bovine milk which consistently yields preparations with greater than 3000-fold purification over skim milk. A concentration-dependent association-dissociation of the enzyme was adapted to the development of an isolation procedure. Purified preparations exhibited two zones, both of which displayed activity, upon polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, but only one zone following disc gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its mobility indicated a subunit weight of 89,000. Several lines of evidence suggest that iron is an integral part of the enzyme. Treatment of the enzyme with EDTA resulted in complete loss of activity which could be subsequently restored by dialysis against 1 muM ferrous sulfate. Furthermore, atomic absorption analysis and neutron activation analysis of separate enzyme preparations each indicated 0.5 atom of iron per subunit. Chemical analyses of sulfhydryl oxidase accounted for 97% of the sample weight, of which 89% could be attributed to amino acid residues and 11% to carbohydrate residues. Five half-cystine residues per subunit were indicated by cysteic acid analysis and by sulfhydryl group determination following reaction with sodium borohydride. Comparison of this value to the total sulfhydryl groups without reduction tentatively suggests the presence of one disulfide bond. Sulfhydryl oxidase was found to catalyze the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in both small compounds and proteins, using O2 as oxidant and producing, in equimolar quantities, H2O2 and the corresponding disulfide. A Michaelis constant of 90 muM was obtained using reduced glutathione as substrate, under conditions of optimal pH and temperature, viz., pH 7.0 and 35 degrees. Substrate inhibition was apparent at GSH concentrations above 0.8 mM. In the presence of sulfhydryl oxidase, reductively denatured RNase was reoxidized and fully reactivated within 1 hour, whereas in the absence of the oxidase under otherwise identical conditions, full recovery of RNase activity required 24 hours. The presence of reducing agent was not required for this activity, nor was prior reduction of the sulfhydryl oxidase. Based on the observed activity, it appears that the enzyme could be involved in the biosynthesis of disulfide bonds in certain proteins.

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