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Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 1;32(5):794-800. Epub 2001 Feb 28.

Pneumococcal disease among human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: incidence, risk factors, and impact of vaccination.

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1
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention-Surveillance and Epidemiology, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA. mdworkin@idph.state.il.us

Abstract

To determine the factors associated with pneumococcal disease (pneumococcal pneumonia or invasive disease) and the impact of pneumococcal vaccine in HIV-infected persons, we analyzed patient data collected by the Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease Project for person-time between January 1990 and December 1998. Among 39,086 persons with 71,116 person-years (py) of observation, 585 episodes of pneumococcal disease were diagnosed (incidence, 8.2 episodes per 1000 py). Factors associated with an increased risk for pneumococcal disease (P < .05) included injection drug use (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.5) and blood transfusion (RR, 2.0) as the mode of HIV transmission (referent, male-male sex); black race/ethnicity (RR, 1.5; referent, white race); history of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining opportunistic illness (RR, 2.1); a CD4(+) cell count of 200-499 cells/microL (RR, 2.5) or < 200 cells/microL (RR, 3.7; referent, CD4(+) cell count of > or = 500 cells/microL); and alcoholism (RR, 2.0). Factors associated with a decreased risk included prescription of antiretroviral therapy (RR for monotherapy, 0.6; for dual therapy, 0.7; for triple therapy, 0.5) and pneumococcal vaccination (RR for persons vaccinated at a CD4(+) cell count of > or = 500 cells/microL, 0.5). We recommend that pneumococcal vaccine be given to HIV-infected persons before profound immunosuppression has occurred.

PMID:
11229848
DOI:
10.1086/319218
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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