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Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 Feb;131(2):244-53.

Macular translocation: unifying concepts, terminology, and classification.

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Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287-9277, USA.



To describe some unifying concepts, terminology, and classification of macular translocation so as to facilitate communication within the scientific community.


A panel of ophthalmologists with expertise in macular translocation reviewed available data and developed some unifying concepts, terminology, and classification of macular translocation.


Macular translocation may be defined as any surgery that has a primary goal of relocating the central neurosensory retina or fovea intraoperatively or postoperatively specifically for the management of macular disease. It may be classified according to the size of the retinotomy and, where applicable, the technique of chorioscleral shortening used. The direction of macular translocation is denoted by the movement of the neurosensory macula relative to the underlying tissues. Effective macular translocation may be defined as successful intraoperative or postoperative relocation of the fovea overlying a subfoveal lesion to an area outside the border of the lesion. The concepts of minimum desired translocation and median postoperative foveal displacement can give some useful idea of the likelihood of effective macular translocation before surgery.


Use of a common standardized terminology for macular translocation will facilitate communication within the scientific community and enhance further research in this area. However, the definitions, terms, classification, and concepts concerning macular translocation are likely to continue to evolve as macular translocation undergoes further modifications and refinements.

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