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Nat Immunol. 2001 Mar;2(3):242-7.

Id3 inhibits B lymphocyte progenitor growth and survival in response to TGF-beta.

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Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093, USA.


E proteins function in many developmental processes and are essential for the formation of lymphocyte progenitors. However, it is not known whether E proteins regulate lymphocyte survival, proliferation or differentiation or how their activity is regulated during lymphocyte development. We show here a role for Id3, an inhibitor of E protein activity, in the induction of apoptosis and growth arrest. Id3 is induced in response to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits the growth and survival of normal and transformed lymphocyte progenitors. In the absence of Id3, the response of lymphocyte progenitors to TGF-beta is perturbed, which indicates that Id3 is a mediator of this response. Our data show a key role for E proteins in lymphocyte survival and link the activity of E proteins, and their antagonists, to members of the TGF-beta family of cytokines.

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