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Cancer Res. 2001 Feb 1;61(3):1220-6.

Intranuclear compartmentalization of cyclin E during the cell cycle: disruption of the nucleoplasm-nucleolar shuttling of cyclin E in bladder cancer.

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Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.


Cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 complexes are essential during the cell cycle for entrance into S phase. Cyclin E expression starts in mid-G1, reaches a maximum at S-phase entrance, and undergoes proteolysis mediated by the ubiquitin pathway as the cell progresses through S phase. Laser scanning cytometry, a microscope-based cytofluorometer combining the advantages of both flow and image analysis, allowed the determination of subcellular localization of cyclin E, p27, and retinoblastoma protein during cell cycle progression in normal human fibroblasts and nine bladder cancer cell lines. We observed that in normal fibroblasts and most tumor cell lines, cyclin E localizes in the nucleoplasm during mid-G1, and is translocated to the nucleolus during G1-S-phase transition, and its levels are undetectable in G2-M phase. Neither levels nor subcellular localization of p27 and retinoblastoma protein was cell cycle dependent in normal or tumor cells. However, four of nine bladder cancer cell lines continued to express cyclin E in all phases of the cycle, and image analysis revealed that it was localized to nucleoli. These observations suggest that the nucleolus mediates a cyclin E "shuttling" between the nucleus and the cytoplasm that is probably involved in its regulation and that this mechanism could be disrupted in bladder cancer.

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