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J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Jan;101(1):115-25.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: food fortification and dietary supplements.


Wise food choices provide the necessary foundation for optimal nutrition. Science has not fully identified the specific chemical components that account for the benefits of healthy eating patterns. Selection of a variety of foods, using tools such as the USDA/HHS Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the USDA Food Guide Pyramid, is the best way to provide a desirable balance, without excessive intakes of macronutrients, micronutrients and other beneficial components of foods. Nevertheless, for certain nutrients and some individuals, fortification, supplementation, or both may also be desirable. Nutrient intakes from all these sources should be considered in dietary assessments, planning and recommendations. The recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences' Food and Nutrition Board provide a sound scientific basis for vitamin and mineral intakes. Intakes exceeding those recommendations have no demonstrated benefit for the normal, healthy population. Dietetics professionals should base recommendations for use of fortified foods or supplements on individualized assessment and sound scientific evidence of efficacy and safety. It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the best nutritional strategy for promoting optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic disease is to wisely choose a wide variety of foods. Additional vitamins and minerals from fortified foods and/or supplements can help some people meet their nutritional needs as specified by science-based nutrition standards such as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI).

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