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Foot Ankle Int. 2001 Jan;22(1):19-30.

Cavovarus foot treated with combined calcaneus and metatarsal osteotomies.

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The Center for Orthopaedic Care, Inc., Cincinnati, OH 45219, USA.


Twenty-one feet in fifteen patients underwent osteotomies of the calcaneus and one or more metatarsals for symptomatic cavovarus foot deformity. Seven (nine feet) were male, and eight (twelve feet) were female. The etiology included hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN) (fifteen feet), post-polio syndrome (two feet), sacral cord lipomeningocele (two feet), parietal lobe porencephalic cyst (one foot), and idiopathic peripheral neuropathy (one foot). Presenting complaints were metatarsalgia (fifteen feet), ankle instablility (five), and ulceration beneath the second metatarsal head (one foot). Eleven feet were assessed using the Maryland Foot Rating Score. Maryland Foot Rating Score (University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD) improved from 72.1 (avg.) preoperatively to 89.9 (avg.) post-operatively (follow-up 70.9 months avg.). Eight feet were assessed using the AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society) Ankle-Hindfoot and Midfoot Scores. The AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score improved from 46.3 (avg.) pre-operatively to 89.1 (avg.) post-operatively, and the AOFAS Midfoot Score improved from 40.9 (avg.) pre-operatively to 88.8 (avg.) post-operatively (follow-up 20.8 months avg.). The postoperative AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Score for all nineteen feet was 90.8 (avg.) and the post-operative AOFAS Midfoot Score for all nineteen feet was 90.2 (avg.). Two patients were lost to follow-up and were not included in the study. Ankle, hindfoot, and midfoot motion was maintained or improved in sixteen feet. Complications included delayed union in two and nonunion in three of 66 metatarsal osteotomies. While three patients required an AFO (ankle-foot orthosis) for ambulation preoperatively, all patients were brace free postoperatively. All patients expressed willingness to undergo the same procedure again if it were necessary. Weight-bearing radiographs were available for 17 feet. Radiographic analysis revealed a decrease in forefoot adduction (9.6 degrees avg.) and a reduction in both hindfoot (9.1 degrees avg.) and forefoot cavus (10.6 degrees) leading to an overall 13 percent reduction in the height of the longitudinal arch. Lateral sliding elevating calcaneal osteotomy combined with dorsolateral closing wedge osteotomies of one or more metatarsal bases in the severe symptomatic cavovarus foot can provide a pain-free, plantigrade foot with a lowered longitudinal arch and a stable ankle without sacrificing motion.

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