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Avian Dis. 2000 Oct-Dec;44(4):853-60.

Survival of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in poultry manure and manure slurry at sublethal temperatures.

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Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, 95616-8746, USA.


Exponential inactivation was observed for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in poultry manure with decimal reduction times ranging from half a day at 37 C to 1-2 wk at 4 C. There was no material difference in inactivation rates between S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7. Inactivation was slower in slurries made by mixing two parts of water with one part of manure; decimal reduction times (time required for 90% destruction) ranged from 1-2 days at 37 C to 6-22 wk at 4 C. Escherichia coli O157:H7 consistently exhibited slightly slower inactivation than S. typhimurium. Log decimal reduction time for both strains was a linear function of storage temperature for manure and slurries. Chemical analysis indicated that accumulation of free ammonia in poultry manure was an important factor in inactivation of the pathogens. This finding was experimentally confirmed for S. typhimurium by adding ammonia directly to peptone water or to bovine manure, which was naturally low in ammonia, and adjusting pH to achieve predetermined levels of free ammonia.

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