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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000;916:444-52.

Pharmacological factors in the saliva of blood-feeding insects. Implications for vesicular stomatitis epidemiology.

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Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory, USDA, ARS, P.O. Box 3965, University Station, Laramie, Wyoming 82071, USA.


Vesicular stomatitis (VS) epizootics in the Western United States have caused substantial economic losses to U.S. livestock industries in 1995, 1997, and 1998. The role of arthropods in transmitting VS to U.S. livestock is unclear. In particular, the impact of arthropod salivary gland factors in VS infections in livestock needs study. Pharmacological effects of arthropod salivary gland factors on animals are reviewed. The potential effects of arthropod saliva on the transmission and spread of VS virus to livestock in the Western U.S. is presented with emphasis on the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Information is discussed with attention to vector potential of C. sonorensis, and its use as a model for evaluating insect salivary gland pharmacology on livestock response to VS.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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