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Leukemia. 2000 Dec;14(12):2019-34.

Kinases: positive and negative regulators of apoptosis.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Leo Jenkins Cancer Center, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina, Greenville, NC 27858, USA.


Cells sense and respond to extracellular factors via receptors on the cell surface that trigger intracellular signaling pathways. The signals received by the receptors on hematopoietic cells often determine if the cell proliferates, survives or undergoes apoptosis. Apoptosis can be induced by almost any cytotoxic stimuli. These stimuli may be an absence of signals arising from cellular receptors, stimulation of specific ligand receptors on the cell surface, chemotherapeutic agents, and ionizing radiation or oxygen radicals, as well as a number of other factors. Cellular kinases and phosphatases participate in signaling cascades that influence this process. We review the ability of the calmodulin-dependent-kinases, I-kappaB kinases, PI3-kinases, Jakkinases, PKC, PKA, and MAP kinase signaling pathways (Erk, Jnk, and p38), to influence the apoptotic process. In addition, we discuss the cross-talk that exists between signaling cascades that are pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic.

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