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J Appl Toxicol. 2000 Nov-Dec;20(6):477-81.

Development of batch injection analysis for electrochemical measurements of trace metal ions in ecotoxicological test media.

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Departamento de QuĂ­mica, Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal.


Batch injection analysis with square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry has been developed as a powerful and rapid technique for obtaining data on the concentration of the fraction of labile metal ions present in media used in ecotoxicological tests. Microlitre samples of solution, without pretreatment, are injected directly over a detector electrode, the surface of which is protected by a thin Nafion polymer coating against irreversible adsorption by organic components. Examples are given showing the effect of adding vitamins and organic extract, singly and together, to the ASTM medium employed for tests using Daphnia magna and with lead and cadmium test ions. Such a methodology can be extended to other electroactive species present in these and similar media.

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