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Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;91(1-4):234-8.

Susceptibility genes: GSTM1 and GSTM3 as genetic risk factors in bladder cancer.

Author information

1
Center for Human Genetics and Genetic Counselling, University of Bremen, Bremen , Germany. phagen@uni-bremen.de

Abstract

Glutathione S-transferase (GST, E.C. 2.5.1.18) comprises a family of isoenzymes that play a key role in the detoxification of such exogenous substrates as xenobiotics, environmental substances, and carcinogenic compounds. At least five mammalian GST gene families have been identified to be polymorphic, and mutations or deletions of these genes contribute to the predisposition for several diseases, including cancer. The gene cluster of GSTM1-GSTM5 has been reported to be localized on chromosome 1p and spans a length of nearly 100 kb. One mutation of the GSTM3 gene generates a recognition site for the transcription factor yin yang 1. As a result of this mutation, the expression of GSTM3 can be influenced. The mutated GSTM3 gene has been reported to be involved in increased susceptibility for the development of cancer, but no information is available concerning its role in bladder cancer. We have identified patients with a heterozygous GSTM3 geno- type who carry a significantly increased risk for the development of bladder cancer. Here we report that the mutation of intron 6 of GSTM3 increases the risk for bladder cancer (odds ratio: 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-2.82). We developed a procedure to identify heterozygous or homozygous carriers of the GSTM1 alleles. Heterozygous carriers of the GSTM1 null genotype have a significantly elevated risk of developing bladder cancer. We calculated an odds ratio of 3.54 (95% CI, 2.99-4.11) for this genotype. These observations lead to the assumption that the lack of detoxification by glutathione conjugation predispose to bladder cancer when at least one of two alleles is affected. Furthermore, individuals presenting the homozygous wild type of GSTM1 and GSTM3 are significantly protected against bladder cancer.

PMID:
11173863
DOI:
10.1159/000056851
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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