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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Feb 13;98(4):1347-52.

Double-level "orthogonal" dynamic combinatorial libraries on transition metal template.

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Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA.


Dynamic combinatorial libraries are mixtures of compounds that exist in a dynamic equilibrium and can be driven to compositional self adaptation via selective binding of a specific assembly of certain components to a molecular target. We present here an extension of this initial concept to dynamic libraries that consists of two levels, the first formed by the coordination of terpyridine-based ligands to the transition metal template, and the second, by the imine formation with the aldehyde substituents on the terpyridine moieties. Dialdehyde 7 has been synthesized, converted into a variety of ligands, oxime ethers L(11)-L(33) and acyl hydrazones L(44)-L(77), and subsequently into corresponding cobalt complexes. A typical complex, Co(L(22))(2)(2+) is shown to engage in rapid exchange with a competing ligand L(11) and with another complex, Co(L(22))(2)(2+) in 30% acetonitrile/water at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. The exchange in the corresponding Co(III) complexes is shown to be much slower. Imine exchange in the acyl hydrazone complexes (L(44)-L(77)) is strongly controlled by pH and temperature. The two types of exchange, ligand and imine, can thus be used as independent equilibrium processes controlled by different types of external intervention, i.e., via oxidation/reduction of the metal template and/or change in the pH/temperature of the medium. The resulting double-level dynamic libraries are therefore named orthogonal, in similarity with the orthogonal protecting groups in organic synthesis. Sample libraries of this type have been synthesized and showed the complete expected set of components in electrospray ionization MS.

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