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Placenta. 2001 Jan;22(1):1-13.

Angiogenesis during implantation, and placental and early embryonic development.

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Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1000 Tenth Avenue, Suite 10C, New York, NY 10019, USA.


Angiogenesis, the development of new capillaries from pre-existing vessels, is induced by inflammation, wound healing, immune reactions and neoplasia, and is required for tumour growth and progression. Angiogenesis participates in a wide range of ovulatory-related and non-ovulatory-related reproductive processes. We present a review of current data pertaining to angiogenesis of pregnancy, with specific emphasis on implantation and placental and embryonic development in both normal physiology processes and various pathological conditions. To this goal, MEDLINE, Current Contents and Index Medicus were searched for studies published between 1966 and August 1999. Pertinent studies (including human and animal models) pertaining to angiogenesis of implantation and placental and embryonic development were reviewed. Current literature supports that angiogenesis is an essential physiological component of implantation, and placental and embryonic development. Angiogenesis also actively participates in abnormal implantation, and various pathological processes of the placenta including those observed in association with pre-eclampsia, growth restriction, maternal anaemia in the first-trimester and other hypoxia-related conditions during pregnancy. Finally, administration of an angiogenesis inhibitor (AGM-1470) in mice has been shown to result in complete failure of embryonic growth due to interference with decidualization, placental and yolk sac formation, and embryonic vascular development.

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