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J Colloid Interface Sci. 2001 Feb 1;234(1):44-58.

Covalently Bound Antibody on Polystyrene Latex Beads: Formation, Stability, and Use in Analyses of White Blood Cell Populations.

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Advanced Technology and, Reagents, Applications and Development, Beckman Coulter, Inc., 11800 SW 147th Avenue, Miami, Florida, 33196


CD4 or CD8 antibodies were covalently bound to latex beads by reaction of activated CD4 or CD8 monoclonal antibodies with 2-µm-diameter, 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP) coupled, polystyrene aldehyde/sulfate latex beads. Spectrophotometric analyses of the filtrates of the antibody-bead conjugation mixtures for unreacted antibody allowed construction of binding curves of antibody for the polystyrene bead surface and evaluation of binding constants for association of antibody with bead, ranging from 1.5x10(7) to 1.6x10(7) M(-1) for CD4 and CD8 antibodies. The reaction of the antibody thiol group with the activated maleimide group on the bead at pH 7.2-7.3 was complete within 10-15 min. The kinetics of CD4 or CD8 monoclonal antibody displacement from the surface of covalently conjugated antibody-polystyrene latex beads was followed as a function of temperature (5, 22, and 37 degrees C) and the nature of the final diluent for the antibody-coated beads by measuring the concentration of antibody in the filtrates of conjugated beads by an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The displacement reaction showed a pseudo-zero-order dependence of the rate, with constants, k(1), ranging from 0.65x10(-17) to 270x10(-17) M s(-1). The functionality of antibody-coated beads suspended in various media was also monitored in a biological cell assay with whole blood. The cell assay depends on forming a layer of beads around targeted lymphocytes to distinguish them from nontargeted lymphocytes by differences in dc or rf conductivity or median angle light scatter. Covalently bound CD4 and CD8 antibody beads stored in one set of media at 5, 22, and 37 degrees C over a period of 16 weeks showed excellent results in the STKS assay with various blood donors, which correlated well (correlation coefficients of 0.99 for CD4 data and 0.93 for CD8 data) with reference results obtained with fluorescent markers by flow cytometry. Covalently bound CD4/CD8 beads stored for 2 weeks in BSA buffer at 5-37 degrees C performed equally well in providing accurate values of the percentage of CD4- or CD8-positive cells in the total white blood cell population, whereas the same beads stored in the 47-50 degrees C range showed some failures in performance. Comparison with antibody concentrations in filtrates of adsorbed antibody-bead suspensions showed 2- to 10-fold greater amounts of free antibody at comparable elapsed time, media, and temperature conditions. A threshold of 1-2 µg/mL of free antibody was necessary before adverse effects on the biological cell assay were noticeable.


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