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Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2):177-89.

Diurnal metabolic profiles after 14 d of an ad libitum high-starch, high-sucrose, or high-fat diet in normal-weight never-obese and postobese women.

Author information

1
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Center for Food Research, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, and the Department of Medical Physiology, The Panum Institute, the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. ar@kvl.dk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The influence of the amount and type of carbohydrates in the diet on risk factors for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the effects of 2 low-fat diets (high-sucrose and high-starch) and a high-fat diet on glycemia, lipidemia, and hormonal responses in never-obese and postobese women.

DESIGN:

Eighteen normal-weight women (8 postobese and 10 never-obese) consumed 3 ad libitum diets (high-fat, high-starch, and high-sucrose) for 14 d each. On day 15, we measured fasting and postprandial glucose, lactate, insulin, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide 1.

RESULTS:

The high-sucrose diet induced significantly lower total areas under the curve (AUCs) for glucose and NEFA and a significantly higher lactate AUC than did the high-fat and high-starch diets; there were no significant differences in the insulin AUCs. The triacylglycerol AUC was greater with the high-fat and high-sucrose diets than with the high-starch diet. Gastrointestinal hormone concentrations differed between diets, but not between the 2 subject groups. Comparisons between subject groups for all diets combined showed lower relative insulin resistance and lower AUCs for glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol in the postobese group.

CONCLUSIONS:

High-starch and high-sucrose diets had no adverse effects on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, or lipidemia compared with a high-fat diet. A sucrose-rich diet may improve glucose metabolism, but may have an adverse effect on lipidemia, compared with a starch-rich diet. Postobese women seemed to be more insulin-sensitive and more efficient at storing triacylglycerol than were never-obese women, regardless of dietary composition.

PMID:
11157312
DOI:
10.1093/ajcn/73.2.177
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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