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Psychiatr Serv. 2001 Feb;52(2):207-13.

The ICCD benchmarks for clubhouses: a practical approach to quality improvement in psychiatric rehabilitation.

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  • 1Fountain House, New York, New York 10036, USA.



The study evaluated whether the average performance of clubhouses certified by the International Center for Clubhouse Development (ICCD) should be considered valid benchmarks for clubhouse programs.


A representative sample of clubhouses more than three years old that were based on the Fountain House model participated in a 1998 mail survey. To verify that ICCD certification is a valid indicator of program quality for use in setting benchmark performance rates, 71 certified and 48 noncertified programs were compared on a variety of organizational variables.


Even though certified and noncertified clubhouses were similar in organizational structure and resources, findings from a logistic regression analysis confirmed that certified clubhouses provided a wider array of rehabilitation services and achieved higher rates of employment.


The findings suggest that ICCD certification is a valid indicator of program quality. The ICCD has therefore proposed that the average performance of certified U.S. clubhouses in specific domains be adopted as benchmarks for organizational performance. When tailored for programs in particular regions and with specific levels of funding, the ICCD benchmarks for clubhouse performance set fair and reasonable expectations for clubhouse programs and for the design of performance contracts between departments of mental health and ICCD clubhouses.

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