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Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2000 Dec;46(8):1337-44.

Protective mechanisms of Mg-gluconate against oxidative endothelial cytotoxicity.

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Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA.


The potential anti-radical properties and cytoprotective effects of Mg-gluconate were studied. When microsomal membranes were peroxidized by a *O2- driven, Fe-catalyzed oxy-radical system (R* = dihydroxyfumarate + Fe2+), Mg-gluconate inhibited lipid peroxidation (TBARS formation) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 being 2.3 mM. For the entire range of .25-2 mM, MgSO4 or MgCl2 were < or = 20% effective compared to Mg-gluconate. When cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells were incubated with the R* for 50 min. at 37 degrees C, 56% loss of total glutathione occurred. Pre-treatment (10 min.) of the cells with 0.25-4 mM Mg-gluconate before R* exposure significantly (p<0.05) prevented the GSH loss to varying degrees; the EC50 was 1.1 mM. In separate experiments, with 30 min. of free radical incubation of endothelial monolayers (approximately 65% confluent), cell survival/proliferation determined by the tetrazolium salt MTT assay, decreased to 38% of control at 24 hrs; Mg-gluconate concentration-dependently attenuated the lost cell survival with EC50 of approximately 1.3 mM. For comparison, the effects provided by MgSO4 or MgCl2 were significantly lower and were < or = 1/3 as potent as that produced by Mg-gluconate. In a Fenton-reaction system consisting of Fe(II)+ H2O2, Mg-gluconate but not other Mg-salts, significantly inhibited the formation of OH radicals as determined by the ESR DMPO-OH signal intensity. Mg-gluconate also dose-dependently inhibited the 'Fe-catalyzed' deoxyribose degradation suggesting that Mg-gluconate could displace Fe from 'catalytic sites' of oxidative damage. These data suggest that Mg-gluconate may serve as a more advantageous Mg-salt for clinical use due to its additional anti-radical and cytoprotective activities.

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