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Int J Cancer. 2001 Jan 1;91(1):76-82.

Invasion and metastasis of a mammary tumor involves TGF-beta signaling.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85724, USA.


Several studies have correlated escape from TGF-beta-mediated cell cycle arrest with the tumorigenic phenotype. Most often, this escape from growth control has been linked to dysfunctional TGF-beta receptors or defects in the TGF-beta-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In this report, we found that highly metastatic 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells express functional TGF-beta receptors capable of initiating SMAD-mediated transcription, yet are not growth inhibited by TGF-beta1. We further observed that TGF-beta directly contributes to the metastatic behavior of this cell line. Exposure to TGF-beta caused 4T1 cells to undergo morphological changes associated with the metastatic phenotype and invade more readily through collagen coated matrices. Furthermore, expression of a dominant negative truncated type II receptor diminished TGF-beta signaling and significantly restricted the ability of 4T1 cells to establish distant metastases. Our results suggest that regardless of 4T1 resistance to TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition, TGF-beta signaling is required for tumor invasion and metastases formation.

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