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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2000 Dec;29(4):683-705, V.

Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome.

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Endocrinology-Hypertension Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.


Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) are life-threatening acute metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus. Although there are some important differences, the pathophysiology, the presenting clinical challenge, and the treatment of these metabolic derangements are similar. Each of these complications can be seen in type 1 or type 2 diabetes, although DKA is usually seen in patients with type 1 diabetes and HHNS in patients with type 2 disease. The clinical management of these syndromes involves careful evaluation and correction of the metabolic and volume status of the patient, identification and treatment of precipitating and comorbid conditions, a smooth transition to a long-term treatment regimen, and a plan to prevent recurrence.

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