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Curr Opin Urol. 2000 Nov;10(6):579-85.

Guidelines for consideration for surgical repair of vesicoureteral reflux.

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Department of Pediatric Urology, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio 44124, USA.


Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a risk factor for acute pyelonephritis, which can result in renal scarring (reflux nephropathy), hypertension, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and complications during pregnancy, In deciding whether to recommend surgical correction of VUR, factors that should be considered include the previous and potential future morbidity of VUR in that individual, the risk of uncorrected VUR, the likelihood of spontaneous resolution or significant reduction in VUR, the efficacy and complications of medical therapy, the morbidity and discomfort associated with serial screening for VUR, the benefits and risks of surgical therapy, and economic factors. Currently, surgical correction is recommended for those who fail medical therapy, or if the child has grade V VUR, bilateral grade IV VUR, moderate VUR associated with a complete duplication anomaly, severe renal scarring, or persistent VUR associated with an ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves or a neuropathic bladder. The current perioperative management of children undergoing ureteroneocystostomy is detailed. In the future, the less invasive alternative of endoscopic therapy will need to be balanced against the changing understanding of the risk of VUR to the individual.

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