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Nat Cell Biol. 2000 Dec;2(12):922-30.

Cytoplasmic dynein is required for poleward chromosome movement during mitosis in Drosophila embryos.

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Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California-Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA.


The movement of chromosomes during mitosis occurs on a bipolar, microtubule-based protein machine, the mitotic spindle. It has long been proposed that poleward chromosome movements that occur during prometaphase and anaphase A are driven by the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, which binds to kinetochores and transports them toward the minus ends of spindle microtubules. Here we evaluate this hypothesis using time-lapse confocal microscopy to visualize, in real time, kinetochore and chromatid movements in living Drosophila embryos in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors of cytoplasmic dynein. Our results show that dynein inhibitors disrupt the alignment of kinetochores on the metaphase spindle equator and also interfere with kinetochore- and chromatid-to-pole movements during anaphase A. Thus, dynein is essential for poleward chromosome motility throughout mitosis in Drosophila embryos.

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