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J Card Fail. 2000 Dec;6(4):306-13.

Predictors of prognosis in patients with stable mild to moderate heart failure.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital S. João, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Portugal.



A number of prognostic indexes have been developed to predict the outcome of patients with severe heart failure (HF). In patients with mild to moderate HF, however, there is no consensus regarding the usefulness of such indexes. The goal of this study is to determine the prognostic value of selected clinical variables in the latter group of patients.


We prospectively evaluated the prognostic value of the functional capacity evaluation, the ventricular function, biochemical metabolic indicators, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in 139 consecutive patients with mild to moderate HF. A clinical and echocardiographic examination (M-mode, 2D and pulsed Doppler of the mitral inflow); a 6-minute walk test; and a determination of serum sodium, uric acid, and BNP levels were performed. Death by any cause was predefined as the study end-point. Variables found to be related with survival in a univariate Cox regression analysis were NYHA class; ischemic origin for HF; left ventricular ejection fraction; deceleration time of the E wave; and 6-minute walk distance, serum sodium, uric acid, and BNP levels. In a multivariate analysis, ischemic origin of HF, 6-minute walk distance, deceleration time of the E wave, and BNP levels were found to be independent prognostic factors. The clustering of the independent prognostic factors was associated with the worse prognosis.


These results suggest that the noninvasive evaluation used in this study and in our population of patients with mild to moderate HF allows the identification of individuals with the worst prognosis. The selected variables might prove to be very helpful in stratifying HF patients and identifying those that might benefit the most from a HF management program.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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