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J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2000 Nov-Dec;10(6 Pt 2):703-9.

Collecting urine samples from young children using cotton gauze for pesticide studies.

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Analytical and Chemical Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.


To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to test the validity of using cotton gauze pad as a medium for collecting urine samples from young children and to examine the stability of the recoveries for creatinine and pesticide metabolites over 24 h. Urine spiked with a pesticide and four metabolites, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (which is mainly eliminated from urine unchanged), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (metabolite for synthetic pyrethroids), atrazine mercapturate (metabolite for atrazine), malathion dicarboxylic acid (metabolite for malathion), and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (metabolite for diazinon) was added to the gauze pads and kept in jars at 37 degrees C in a water bath. Urine was expressed from the gauze pads immediately and after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h, then analyzed. The recoveries, calculated as the percentage of concentration in expressed urine divided by that of the control urine sample, were within a range of 70-130%. The metabolite and creatinine concentrations did not change with time in either expressed urine samples or controls. The results suggest that cotton gauze pad is a promising candidate for collecting urine samples from young children wearing diapers for studies in which these five urinary pesticide metabolites are to be analyzed.

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