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Gene. 2000 Dec 30;260(1-2):145-53.

Genomic characterization of the human and mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B genes.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Merck Frosst Center for Therapeutic Research, Kirkland, Quebec H9H 3L1, Canada.


PTP-1B is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Mice deficient in PTP-1B were found to have an enhanced insulin sensitivity and a resistance to diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, the human PTP-1B gene maps to chromosome 20q13.1 in a region that has been associated with diabetes and obesity. Although there has been a partial characterization of the 3' end of the human PTP-1B gene, the complete gene organization has not been described. In order to further characterize the PTP-1B gene, we have cloned and determined the genomic organization for both the human and mouse PTP-1B genes including the promoter. The human gene spans >74 kb and features a large first intron of >54 kb; the mouse gene likewise contains a large first intron, although the exact size has not been determined. The organization of the human and mouse PTP-1B genes is identical except for an additional exon at the 3' end of the human that is absent in the mouse. The mouse PTP-1B gene maps to the distal arm of mouse chromosome 2 in the region H2-H3. This region is associated with a mouse obesity quantitative trait locus (QTL) and is syntenic with human chromosome 20. The promoter region of both the human and mouse genes contain no TATA box but multiple GC-rich sequences that contain a number of consensus SP-1 binding sites. The basal activity of the human PTP-1B promoter was characterized in Hep G2 cells using up to 8 kb of 5' flanking sequence. A 432 bp promoter construct immediately upstream of the ATG was able to confer maximal promoter activity. Within this sequence, there are at least three GC-rich sequences and one CCAAT box, and deletion of any of these elements results in decreased promoter activity. In addition, the promoter in a number of mouse strains contains, 3.5 kb upstream of the start codon, an insertion of an intracisternal a particle (IAP) element that possibly could alter the expression of PTP-1B mRNA in these strains.

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