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Cell. 2000 Dec 8;103(6):843-52.

Cofactor dynamics and sufficiency in estrogen receptor-regulated transcription.

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Department of Adult Oncology Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School 02115, Boston, MA, USA.


Many cofactors bind the hormone-activated estrogen receptor (ER), yet the specific regulators of endogenous ER-mediated gene transcription are unknown. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we find that ER and a number of coactivators rapidly associate with estrogen responsive promoters following estrogen treatment in a cyclic fashion that is not predicted by current models of hormone activation. Cycles of ER complex assembly are followed by transcription. In contrast, the anti-estrogen tamoxifen (TAM) recruits corepressors but not coactivators. Using a genetic approach, we show that recruitment of the p160 class of coactivators is sufficient for gene activation and for the growth stimulatory actions of estrogen in breast cancer supporting a model in which ER cofactors play unique roles in estrogen signaling.

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