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J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Jan;39(1):298-303.

Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, soluble type II TNF receptor, and transforming growth factor beta levels in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals with Mycobacterium avium complex disease.

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Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California 92103, USA.


To characterize changes in serum cytokine levels in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, the levels of IL-1alpha (interleukin-1alpha), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble type II TNF receptor (sTNF-RII), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in serum were measured in two cohorts of HIV-1-infected persons with MAC bacteremia. The first cohort was part of a MAC prophylaxis study. Patients with bacteremia were matched with controls without bacteremia. Elevated IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, sTNF-RII, and TGF-beta levels were noted at baseline for all subjects, a result consistent with advanced HIV-1 disease. IL-1alpha was not detected. No differences in cytokine levels in serum were noted at baseline and at the time of bacteremia between patients with MAC and controls. In the second cohort, subjects had serum samples collected at the time of MAC bacteremia and thereafter while on macrolide therapy. Serum samples at time of bacteremia were collected from HIV-1-infected persons at a time when neither highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) nor MAC prophylaxis was used routinely. MAC treatment resulted in decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in serum, which were evident for IL-6 by 4 to 6 weeks and for TNF-alpha by 8 to 16 weeks. Thus, antibiotic treatment for MAC results in decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in serum in HIV-1-infected persons who are not on HAART.

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