Send to

Choose Destination
Mol Genet Metab. 2000 Dec;71(4):639-45.

Higher risk of mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency carriers and cigarette smokers.

Author information

Department of Health Sciences Research, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Department of Medical Genetics, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.


Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a genomic alteration observed in 15-30% of colorectal cancer (CRC). Two MSI phenotypes have been defined for CRC: MSI-H is characterized by MSI at > or =30% of the examined loci and MSI-L by MSI at 1-30% of the loci. An absence of MSI at any examined loci has been defined as a microsatellite stable (MSS) phenotype. Current data suggest the majority of MSI tumors are the result of defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR). In this study, we have determined the alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency carrier (alpha(1)ATD-ht) status of 161 CRC patients whose MSI phenotype and protein expression states had previously been determined. Cases were selected to enrich a larger number of MSI-H cases. Among 51 CRC patients with MSI-H tumors, the alpha(1)ATD-ht rate was 21.6%; among 110 patients with MSI-L/MSS tumors, the rate was 9.1% (MSI-H vs MSI-L/MSS, P = 0.02); and among the 191 population-based controls the alpha(1)ATD-ht rate was 9.4% (MSI-H vs controls, P = 0.02). The estimated relative risk of having MSI-H CRC among alpha(1)ATD-ht was 3.1 after adjusting for age, gender, and smoking history. The risk of having MSI-H CRC among current and past smokers was 6.6 and 2.7, respectively. Patients who were alpha(1)ATD-ht and smoked had a 20-fold increased risk of developing an MSI-H CRC compared to nonsmokers who were homozygous normal at the alpha(1)ATD locus. Our findings suggest an etiologic link between alpha(1)ATD alleles and development of CRC with defective MMR, and a synergistic effect between smoking and alpha(1)ATD allele in the development of MSI-H CRC.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center