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Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Dec 15;152(12):1145-53.

Prospective study of dietary supplements, macronutrients, micronutrients, and risk of bladder cancer in US men.

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Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Data derived from laboratory investigations suggest that a number of dietary variables may contribute to bladder carcinogenesis. Although bladder cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer in men in the United States, dietary studies are few. The authors examined the relations between intakes of macro- and micronutrients and the risk of bladder cancer among men in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Each participant completed a 131-item food frequency questionnaire in 1986 and in 1990, from which nutrient intakes were calculated. During 12 years of follow-up, 320 cases of bladder cancer were diagnosed. No association was observed for total caloric or macronutrient intake and bladder cancer risk. Similarly, we found no relation for dietary intake of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, or water-soluble vitamins and bladder cancer risk. Total vitamin E intake and vitamin E supplements were inversely associated with risk. In addition, a dose-response relation was observed for duration of vitamin E supplement use. A suggestive inverse association was seen with dose of vitamin C supplement use. More studies are needed to determine the role of vitamins E and C supplement intake in bladder carcinogenesis.

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