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Doc Ophthalmol. 2000 Jul;101(1):25-33.

Distribution of refractive errors in Spain.

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Departament d'Optica, Facultat de Física, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.


The aim of this work was to characterise the refractive state of a Spanish population. Special attention to myopia prevalence was carried out. At this stage 7621 subjects, 3692 males and 3929 females, between 3 and 93 years were examined by means of static retinoscopy and subjective refraction. The most prevalent was emmetropia with a mean percentage of 43.2% and ranging from 60.6% (3-8 years) to 29.0% (66-93 years). The prevalence of hyperopia (35.6%) increased with age, from 36.9% (3-8 years) to 55.8% (66-93 years). Myopia appeared to be more prevalent in the 30-35 age group (30.1%), agreeing with the more near-work demanding age range. Mean refractive error obtained was +0.19 +/- 3.42 D, ranging from +0.05 +/- 3.18 D (20-35 years) to +0.96 +/- 2.42 (66-93 years). Reading addition value obtained was similar to respective values of age of other populations. The whole Spanish population evaluated was emmetrop. No differences in prevalence from other populations were found, obtaining greater values of myopia in groups with more near work and a greater percentage of hyperopia versus age.

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