Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Immunol. 2001 Jan 1;166(1):633-41.

Production of IL-12 by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells is optimal when the stimulus is given at the onset of maturation, and is further enhanced by IL-4.

Author information

Department of Dermatology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.


Dendritic cells produce IL-12 both in response to microbial stimuli and to T cells, and can thus skew T cell reactivity toward a Th1 pattern. We investigated the capacity of dendritic cells to elaborate IL-12 with special regard to their state of maturation, different maturation stimuli, and its regulation by Th1/Th2-influencing cytokines. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were generated with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 7 days, followed by another 3 days +/- monocyte-conditioned media, yielding mature (CD83(+)/dendritic cell-lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein(+)) and immature (CD83(-)/dendritic cell-lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein(-)) dendritic cells. These dendritic cells were stimulated for another 48 h, and IL-12 p70 was measured by ELISA. We found the following: 1) Immature dendritic cells stimulated with CD154/CD40 ligand or bacteria (both of which concurrently also induced maturation) secreted always more IL-12 than already mature dendritic cells. Mature CD154-stimulated dendritic cells still made significant levels (up to 4 ng/ml). 2) Terminally mature skin-derived dendritic cells did not make any IL-12 in response to these stimuli. 3) Appropriate maturation stimuli are required for IL-12 production: CD40 ligation and bacteria are sufficient; monocyte-conditioned media are not. 4) Unexpectedly, IL-4 markedly increased the amount of IL-12 produced by both immature and mature dendritic cells, when present during stimulation. 5) IL-10 inhibited the production of IL-12. Our results, employing a cell culture system that is now being widely used in immunotherapy, extend prior data that IL-12 is produced most abundantly by dendritic cells that are beginning to respond to maturation stimuli. Surprisingly, IL-12 is only elicited by select maturation stimuli, but can be markedly enhanced by the addition of the Th2 cytokine, IL-4.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center