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Curr Oncol Rep. 2000 May;2(3):242-50.

Biomarkers as surrogates for cancer development.

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DCP/GI and Other Cancer Research Group, National Cancer Institute, EPN, Suite 201, 6130 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892-7322, USA.


Biomarkers are routinely applied in the management of chronic diseases to reduce morbidity and mortality through early diagnosis, as well as to assess the necessity for, and responsiveness to, applied interventions. Biomarkers yield mechanistic insights into layers of biologic organization from molecule to organelle, to cell, and finally to cellular organization and tissue. A step-wise approach to the development of tissue-based biomarkers is presented. These biomarkers may serve as molecular targets for scientific inquiry and intervention, as well as approvable endpoints for clinical trials.

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