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Radiat Res. 2001 Jan;155(1 Pt 2):156-162.

Vitamin D resistance in RAS-transformed keratinocytes: mechanism and reversal strategies.

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Department of Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A1, Canada.


Human retinoid X receptor alpha (hRXRalpha) plays a critical role in DNA binding and transcriptional activity through its heterodimeric association with several members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, including the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Several cancer cell lines derived from different tissues have been shown to be resistant to the growth-inhibitory action of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D(3). Here we show that in RAS-transformed keratinocytes, Ser260 of hRXRalpha is phosphorylated through the RAS-RAF-MAP kinase cascade. This phosphorylation event results in the inhibition of vitamin D signaling via VDR/hRXRalpha heterodimers. Strategies to reverse this resistance include the use of the MAP kinase inhibitor, PD098059, and a non-phosphorylatable hRXRalpha mutant, Ala260, which completely abolishes RXR phosphorylation and restores the function of both 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and a specific RXR ligand, LG1069 (4-[1-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-2-naphtalenyl)ethenyl]-benzoic acid). In addition, we show that a vitamin D analog with low calcemic activity (EB1089) is more potent than 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in inhibiting cancer cell growth in this system. Targeted therapy with selective analogs such as EB1089, in combination with the inhibition of phosphorylation of the RXR, could play a critical role in the development of strategies for cancer treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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