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J Infect Dis. 2001 Jan 15;183(2):333-337. Epub 2000 Dec 15.

Mutations conferring ganciclovir resistance in a cohort of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cytomegalovirus retinitis.

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Departments of Ophthalmology and Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is among the most common opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In a prospective study of 210 patients with CMV retinitis, 26 were identified as having either a phenotypic or a genotypic ganciclovir-resistant isolate from either blood or urine cultures. For blood culture isolates with an IC(50) >6.0 microm for ganciclovir, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting a UL97 mutation were 95% and 98%, respectively, whereas for an IC(50) >8.0 microM they were 79% and 99%, respectively. Although there were trade-offs between the 2 thresholds for blood culture isolates, for urine culture isolates an IC(50) >8.0 microM appeared to be better at identifying genotypic resistance. UL97 mutations identified in both the blood and urine cultures of individual patients were identical in 87.5% of cases. High-level ganciclovir resistance (IC(50), >30 microM) typically, but not invariably, was associated with a mutation in both the UL97 and UL54 genes.

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