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Ultrasound Med Biol. 2000 Oct;26(8):1213-35.

Cross-beam vector Doppler ultrasound for angle-independent velocity measurements.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.


Combining Doppler measurements taken along multiple intersecting ultrasound (US) beams is one approach to obtaining angle-independent velocity. Over 30 laboratories and companies have developed such cross-beam systems since the 1970s. Early designs focused on multiple single-element probes. In the late 1980s, combining multiple color Doppler images acquired from linear-array transducers became a popular modality. This was further expanded to include beam steering and the use of subapertures. Often, with each change in design, came a new twist to calculating the velocity. This article presents a review of most proposed cross-beam systems published to date. The emphasis is on the basic design, the approach used to determine the angle-independent velocity, the advantages of the design, and the disadvantages of the design. From this, requirements needed to convert the idea of angle-independent vector Doppler into a commercial system are suggested.

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