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Oncologist. 2000;5(6):471-6.

The initial results in muscle-invading bladder cancer of RTOG 95-06: phase I/II trial of transurethral surgery plus radiation therapy with concurrent cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by selective bladder preservation or cystectomy depending on the initial response.

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  • 1Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.



To assess the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of transurethral surgery plus concomitant cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation therapy in conjunction with selective bladder preservation in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer. Patients and Methods. Thirty-four eligible patients with clinical stage T2-T4a, Nx M0 bladder cancer without hydronephrosis were entered into a protocol aimed at selective bladder preservation. Treatment began with as complete a transurethral resection as possible followed by induction chemoradiation. This consisted of cisplatin 15 mg/m(2) i.v. and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 400 mg/m(2) i.v. in the mornings on d 1, 2, 3, 15, 16, and 17. On d 1, 3, 15, and 17, radiation was given immediately following the chemotherapy using twice-a-day 3 Gy per fraction cores to the pelvis for a total radiation dose of 24 Gy. Response was evaluated by cystoscopy, cytology, and rebiopsy four weeks later. Patients with a complete response received consolidation therapy with the same drugs and doses on d 1, 2, 3, 15, 16, and 17 combined with twice-daily radiation therapy to the bladder and bladder tumor volume of 2.5 Gy per fraction for a total consolidation dose of 20 Gy and a total induction plus consolidation dose to the bladder and bladder tumor of 44 Gy. Patients who did not achieve a complete response were advised to undergo prompt cystectomy, as were those with a subsequent invasive recurrence. The median follow up is 29 months.


Of the 34 eligible patients, 26 had a visibly complete transurethral resection. One patient did not complete induction treatment due to acute hematologic toxicity. After induction treatment, 22 (67%) of the 33 patients had no tumor detectable on urine cytology or rebiopsy. Of the 11 patients who still had detectable tumor, six underwent radical cystectomy and five underwent consolidation chemoradiation (one because of refusal to have the recommended cystectomy and four because the treating institutions erroneously assigned them to receive consolidation chemoradiation rather than cystectomy). No patient has required a cystectomy for radiation toxicity. Six patients have died of bladder cancer. The actuarial overall survival at three years is 83%. The probability of surviving with an intact bladder is 66% at three years. A total of seven patients (21%) developed grade 3 or grade 4 hematologic toxicity in conjunction with this treatment.


This aggressive protocol comprising local surgery plus concurrent 5-FU, cisplatin, and high-dose hypofractionated radiation has been associated with moderately severe hematologic toxicity. Longer follow-up will be necessary to assess efficacy. Both the 67% complete response rate to induction therapy and the 66% three-year survival with an intact bladder are encouraging.

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