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Jpn Circ J. 2000 Nov;64(11):825-30.

Risk factors that discriminate 'high- risk' from 'low-risk' Japanese patients with coronary artery disease.

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The Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka, Japan.


Although various risk factors have been implicated in the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD), coronary risk factors specifically related to the long-term prognosis for high-risk CAD have not been determined. The study enrolled 311 consecutive Japanese patients with CAD who underwent diagnostic coronary arteriography and divided them into 2 groups: (i) 135 high-risk patients with either impaired left ventricular function (ejection fraction <50%) or multivessel disease and (ii) 176 low-risk patients with normal left ventricular function and 0- or 1-vessel disease. The prevalence of risk factors including age, gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity and lipid variables were compared between the 2 groups. The prevalence of DM, a serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level below 35 mg/dl and a serum lipoprotein (Lp) (a) level above 25 mg/dl was significantly higher in the high-risk group as compared with the low-risk group. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that DM (odds ratio (OR): 1.72, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.02-2.92, p<0.05), a low HDL-cholesterol level (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.49-4.17, p<0.001) and a high Lp(a) level (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02-2.76, p<0.05) were all independent risk factors for high-risk CAD. However, if the patients with 0-vessel disease were excluded from the low-risk group, a low HDL-cholesterol level was found to be the only independent predictor for high-risk CAD (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.15-3.70, p<0.05). Among both men and smokers in this population, a higher Lp(a) level was found to be a significant predictor for high-risk CAD. A low serum level of HDL-cholesterol, a high serum level of Lp(a) and DM were significant predictors of high-risk in patients with CAD. Among patients with a significant coronary stenosis or left ventricular dysfunction, a low serum level of HDL-cholesterol was the only significant predictor for high-risk CAD.

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