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J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 16;276(11):8608-15. Epub 2000 Dec 4.

ADP is the cognate ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor SP1999.

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Human Genome Research, Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, USA.


P2Y receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors activated primarily by ATP, UTP, and UDP. Five mammalian P2Y receptors have been cloned so far including P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, and P2Y11. P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 couple to the activation of phospholipase C, whereas P2Y4 and P2Y11 couple to the activation of both phospholipase C and the adenylyl cyclase pathways. Additional ADP receptors linked to Galpha(i) have been described but have not yet been cloned. SP1999 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, which is highly expressed in brain, spinal cord, and blood platelets. In the present study, we demonstrate that SP1999 is a Galpha(i)-coupled receptor that is potently activated by ADP. In an effort to identify ligands for SP1999, fractionated rat spinal cord extracts were assayed for Ca(2+) mobilization activity against Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently transfected with SP1999 and chimeric Galpha subunits (Galpha(q/i)). A substance that selectively activated SP1999-transfected cells was identified and purified through a series of chromatographic steps. Mass spectral analysis of the purified material definitively identified it as ADP. ADP was subsequently shown to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity through selective activation of SP1999 with an EC(50) of 60 nM. Other nucleotides were able to activate SP1999 with a rank order of potency 2-MeS-ATP = 2-MeS-ADP > ADP = adenosine 5'-O-2-(thio)diphosphate > 2-Cl-ATP > adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate). Thus, SP1999 is a novel, Galpha(i)-linked receptor for ADP.

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