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Eur Heart J. 2000 Dec;21(24):2042-55.

Safety and preliminary efficacy of one month glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with lefradafiban in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-elevation; a phase II study.

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Thoraxcenter, Erasmus University and University Hospital Rotterdam, The Netherlands.



Oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors might enhance the early benefit of an intravenous agent and prevent subsequent cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We assessed the safety and preliminary efficacy of 1 month treatment with three dose levels of the oral GP IIb/IIIa blocker lefradafiban in patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without persistent ST elevation.


The Fibrinogen Receptor Occupancy STudy (FROST) was designed as a dose-escalation trial with 20, 30 and 45 mg lefradafiban t.i.d. or placebo. Five hundred and thirty-one patients were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to lefradafiban or placebo in a double-blind manner. Efficacy was assessed by the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization and recurrent angina. Safety was evaluated by the occurrence of bleeding classified according to the TIMI criteria and by measuring clinical laboratory parameters.


There was a trend towards a reduction in cardiac events with lefradafiban 30 mg when compared with placebo and lefradafiban 20 mg. The benefit was particularly apparent in patients with a positive (> or = O.1 ng. ml(-1)) troponin I test at baseline and less so in those with a negative test result. In patients receiving lefradafiban, the cardiac event rate decreased with increasing minimal levels of fibrinogen receptor occupancy. There was a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of bleeding: the composite of major or minor bleeding occurred in 1% of placebo patients, 5% of patients receiving lefradafiban 20 mg and in 7% of patients receiving 30 mg, with an excessive risk (15%) in the 45 mg group which resulted in early discontinuation of this dose level. Gingival and arterial or venous puncture site bleedings were most common and accounted for more than 60% of all haemorrhagic events. There was an increased incidence of neutropenia (neutrophils <1. 5 x 10(9)/l) in the lefradafiban groups (5.2% vs 1.5% in the placebo group), which did not result from bone marrow depression but rather from a reversible redistribution of neutrophils by margination or clustering.


One month's treatment with the oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor lefradafiban in patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction without persistent ST elevation resulted in a decrease in cardiac events with lefradafiban 30 mg and a dose-dependent increase in haemorrhagic events. The observed favourable trend towards a reduction in cardiac events in patients with elevated troponin levels requires confirmation in a large clinical trial.

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