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Phys Rev Lett. 2000 Dec 11;85(24):5042-5.

Hawking radiation As tunneling

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Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 and Spinoza Institute, University of Utrecht, 3584 CE Utrecht, The Netherlands.


We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor.

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